Monday, March 13, 2017

Mocking in Java using Mockito

Before talking about Mockito Framework. Let’s see why do we need it at the first place and how it can be helpful.

Last year, I was working on one project which talks to other third party services as well as with the database connection and to test the functionality of my application, third party application should be up and running. There can be a chance where all these services might not available during unit testing.

As you can see, your application is completely dependent on other application and what if:
  • Third party application is down
  •             You cannot connect to database to test your functionality

At such situation, mocking becomes a natural solution for unit testing. Using Mockito, you don’t really need a database connection. You just need a mock object that returns the expected result.

Mockito: Introduction

Mockito is a mocking framework, the JAVA-based library that is used for effective unit testing of JAVA applications. It lets you write beautiful tests with a clean & simple API and used to mock interfaces so that a dummy functionality can be added to a mock interface that can be used in unit testing like we don’t require a database connection or properties file read or file server read to test a functionality. A mock object returns a dummy data corresponding to some dummy input passed to it.

It facilitates creating mock objects seamlessly and uses Java Reflection in order to create mock objects for a given interface. Mock objects are nothing but the proxy for actual implementations.


You can download the JAR file and place it in your project class or If you are using Maven, then you need to add its dependency in the pom.xml file, as shown below.
                                    <version 1.9.5</version>

You can add it in gradle too:

repositories { jcenter() }
dependencies { testCompile "org.mockito:mockito-core:2.+" }


Mockito provides various Annotation/Class/Function using which we can integrate mock object into out JUNIT test cases.

I’ve uploaded one tutorial on GITHUB which we will refer it to here to understand the behavior/implementation of Mockito framework.

In EmployeeServiceTest_Annotation Class, I am invoking employeeServiceImpl.addEmployee(employee) to add the employee object and expecting long Id after the creation of object into the database. This API internally call employeeDao object to persist the data into the database and get the results.
Over here, employeeServiceImpl is the class in which we will inject the employeeDao mock object.

Let’s start implementing it:

Mockito supports the creation of mock objects using the static mock() method or using @Mock annotation and to use this annotation, we must invoke the static method MockitoAnnotations.initMocks(this) or use @RunWith(MockitoJUnitRunner.class) to populate the annotated fields.

@InjectMocks: it is used to create and inject the mock object.
@Mock: It is used to create the mock object to be injected

Adding behavior to mock object:

Mockito provides when(… .).thenReturn(… .) method to configure which values should be returned at a method call based on specific condition. It will return a value once it matches with a condition.

Eg: when(employeeDao.addEmployee(any(Employee.class))).thenReturn(1L);

It will return 1 whenever we invoke addEmployee(…) with any Employee object.
If you specify more than one value, then it will return in the order of specification until the last one is used.

Iterator it= mock(Iterator.class);

Verify the calls on the mock objects

Mockito provides another method called verify() which is similar to When() but does not check the result of a method but it checks that a method is called with the right parameters. 

Eg: verify call to employeeDao to make sure it get called and limit the method call to 1, no less and no more calls are allowed
            verify(employeeDao, times(1)).addEmployee(any(Employee.class));

Exception handling

Mockito provides the capability to a mock to throw exceptions so exception handling can be tested.

Eg: add the behavior to throw exception
                        doThrow(new Exception("Employee not found")).when(employeeDao).getEmployee(2);

Ordered Verification

Mockito provides Inorder class which takes care of the order of method calls that the mock is going to make in due course of its action.
Eg: Create an inOrder verifier for a single mock

                        InOrder inOrder = inOrder(employeeDao);

            // following will make sure that add is first called then subtract is called.


Mockito provides an option to create spy on real objects. When a spy is called, then the actual method of the real object is called.

Eg:  create a spy on actual object
                        employeeDao = spy(spyEmployeeDaoImpl);


Mockito provides a special Timeout option to test if a method is called within its stipulated time frame.

Eg: Verify call to add employee method to be completed within 100 ms
                        verify(employeeDao, timeout(100)).addEmployee(any(Employee.class));

You can download the source code from GITHUB.

Happy Coding..!!!