Saturday, January 5, 2019

How to write Lambda Expression in Java 8


   How to write Lambda Expression?



With the introduction of Lambda Expression in JAVA 8, We can write more readable, maintainable and concise code but I have seen people keep forgetting the syntax of lambda expression or they are always confused with it.

In this blog, I ll just try to explain the basic things i.e. how easy is it to write Lambda Expression but before starting with the syntax, Let’ see what is lambda Expression?

In simple term, Lambda expression (->) is an anonymous function which
    - doesn’t have any name
    - doesn’t have any modifiers
    - doesn’t have any return type.

To understand it in a more easy way, Let’s first write a simple Java function which display some message on the console.

Example 1: Display Message

  1. public void display (){ 
  2.     system.out.println(“Learning Lambda Expression”); 
Now to convert the above code into lambda expression, read the lambda definition once again i.e. it says no modifiers, no return type and no function name.

Step 1: Delete public (Modifier) void (return type) and display ( function name) from first line.

  1. public void display (){ 
  2. system.out.println(“Learning Lambda Expression”); 

Step 2: Add Lambda Expression Symbol before curly braces.

           () -> {system.out.println(“Learning Lambda Expression”);}

That’s it, We have converted the normal Java code into Lambda Expression form. Just delete the name, return type, modifier and add lambda expression symbol and you are done :)


Code Optimization: The above syntax is correct but we can optimize it further...

Rule 1: if the function body has only statement then we can remove the curly braces.

             () -> system.out.println(“Learning Lambda Expression”);


Example 2: Addition of two numbers

  1. public void sum(int x, int y) { 
  2.     system.out.println(x+y); 
The lambda expression for #2 after removing modifier, name, return type and after applying Rule#1 will be

             (int x, int y) -> system.out.println(x+y);

Isn’t it simple? Right?

Let's see the second rule


Rule 2: Use Parameter type Inference. If you don’t know what is Type Inference then you can read my blog over here. In one line, Type Inference is the ability of the compiler to look at the method and to guess the correct method invocation. So we can remove int type from method parameters.

           (x, y) -> system.out.println(x+y); 


Example 3: Returns the length of String

  1. public int getLength(String s){ 
  2.     return s.length(); 
The lambda expression for #3 after removing modifier, name, return type and after applying Rule#1 & Rule#2 will be

           (s) -> return s.length();

Rule 3: Again as per Type Inference, We can also ignore the return type over here as compiler can guess easily the return type.

             (s) -> s.length();

Rule 4: if the function has single parameter then we can ignore it. So the final optimize and concise Lambda expression for Example 3 would be

               s -> s.length();

That's it  for now. Will try to cover other topics of JAVA 8 in my next blog.

Happy Coding...!!!

Java 8 - Type Inference


Java 8 – Type Inference

Type inference was first introduced in JDK 7 and later improved in JDK 8. It is a feature of Java which provides ability to compiler to look at each method invocation and corresponding declaration to determine the type of argument(s).

The inference algorithm checks the types of the arguments and,if available, assigned type is returned. It tries to find a specific type which can full fill all type parameters.

Till Java 6, We have to declare an Arraylist by mentioning its type explicitly at both side.
            List<Integer> numbers = new ArrayList<Integer>();
and if we keep the type as blank at right side then Compiler generates unchecked conversion.
            List<Integer> numbers = new ArrayList<>();

With JDK 7, It got improved and we started mentioning the type of arraylist only at one side. Below we can left second side as blank diamond and compiler will infer type of it by type of reference variable. Now, compiler will not generate any warning
            List<Integer> numbers = new ArrayList<>();

Improved Type Inference in JDK 8
Now, we can call specialized method without explicitly mentioning of type of arguments.
            sum(new ArrayList<>());

Let’s see the java implementation




Wednesday, September 26, 2018

Introduction to RESTful API Modeling Language (RAML)



Introduction to RESTful API Modeling Language (RAML)

1. Overview

RAML is a YAML based language which is built on YAML1.2 and JSON for describing RESTful APIs. It provides all the information necessary to describe Restful API.
It focuses on cleanly describing resources, methods, parameters, responses, media types, and other HTTP constructs that form the basis for modern APIs that obey many, though perhaps not all, Restful constraints.

2. Requirement

Before jumping to RAML. Let’s assume we have to create one web application which is exposing CRUD Operations and couple of query parameters to access USER resources:
· POST /api/v1/users
· GET /api/v1/users
· GET /api/v1/users?username={username}
· GET /api/v1/users/{userId}
· PUT /api/v1/users/userId{}
· DELETE /api/v1/users/{userId}
All the API’s are secured via Basic Authentication and all the communication will be done over HTTPS and all the request response will be in JSON format.

3. Implementation


3.1 Adding Root level details

To start with RAML, first create a file with extension .raml and at rool level, you need to define the setting starting with RAML version.
1. #%RAML 1.0
2. title: REST Services API using Data Types
3. version: v1
4. protocols: [ HTTPS ]
5. baseUri: http://hostname/api/{version}
6. mediaType: application/json

#1 defines the RAML version
#2 Title of the application
#3 API versions
#4 HTTP or HTTPS channel
#5 URL of the application where ‘versions’ refers to a property which will be replaced with #3 version.
#6 Media type for the request/response.

3.2 Add Security

Security should also be added at the root level and as I mentioned earlier all the API’s are secured via Basic Authentication.

  1. securitySchemes:
  2. basicAuth:
  3. description: Basic Authnetication to authenticate API
  4. type: Basic Authentication
  5. describedBy:
  6. headers:
  7. Authorization:
  8. description: Used to send the Base64-encoded "username:password" credentials
  9. type: string
  10. example: Authorization NTA5NjUsInN1YiI6IkJhcmNsYXlzX1BheW1lbnRfU2Vydmlj
  11. responses:
  12. 401:
  13. description: |
  14. Unauthorized. Username/password is invalid


3.3 Add Data type

Once you are done with security then starts adding all your data type. In my case I will define it for users.
There are multiples ways to define your type:
1. You can create a new file users .raml and include the path over here (Will discuss at the end of this document).
2. Define the types after root setting using expanded syntax
3. Or you can do it via shortcut.

  1. types:
  2. Users:
  3. type: object
  4. properties:
  5. id:
  6. required: true
  7. type: integer
  8. username:
  9. required: true
  10. type: string
  11. roles:
  12. required: false
  13. type: string

Now we will see how we can define the user using shorthand.
1. types:
2. Users:
3. properties:
4. id: integer
5. username: string
6. roles?: string

? -> Adding to any property declares that the field is not mandatory.

3.4 Define Resource, method, URL parameters and query parameters


To define a resources
/users:
To add the method
/users:
get:
post:

To add the URL parameters
/users:
get:
post:
/{userId}:
get:
put:
delete:

To add the Query Parameters:
/users:
get:
description: List all users with/without filters
queryParameters:
name?: string
roles?: string
post:
/{userId}:
get:
put:
delete:

Over here, we have seen how we can declare the resources with VERB and how we can define path as well as query parameters.

3.5 Request and Response Body

In above example we have defined the users resources with POST method but have not defined the payload. Let’s see how we can add payload, response and Status Code to an API.
/users:
get:
description: List all users with/without filters
queryParameters:
name?: string
roles?: string
post:
description: create a new user
body:
application/json:
type: Users
example: { "id" : 101, "name" : "Abdul Waheed”, “roles”:”Admin” }
responses:
201:
body:
application/json:
type: Users
example: { "id" : 101, "name" : "Abdul Waheed”, “roles”:”Admin” }
500:
   body:
     application/json:
        type: Error
       example: { "message" : "Internal Server Error, "code" : 500 }

/{userId}:
get:
put:
delete:


In this example, We are performing POST operation where we are passing Users object in the form of JSON and in response we are getting STATUS code as 201 and again response type in the form of JSON.


4. Usage of Includes in RAML
In the above example, we just took one resouces but let’s assume you have to create RAML for your application where you have many resouces and each resouces have multiple consuming API.
Handling such requirement makes our .raml file more verbose and repetetive.
Using !include, we can externalize our duplicate lengthy code.
Eg: we can put the data type for a Users object in the file types/Users.raml and the type for an Error object in types/Error.raml. Then our types section would look like this:
types:
Users: !include types/Users.raml
 Error: !include types/Error.raml


5. Completing the API
After externalizing all of the data types and examples to their files, we can refactor our API using the include facility
  1. #%RAML 1.0
  2. title: REST Services API using Data Types
  3. version: v1
  4. protocols: [ HTTPS ]
  5. baseUri: http://hostname/api/{version}
  6. mediaType: application/json
  7. securitySchemes:
  8. basicAuth:
  9. description: Basic Authnetication to authenticate API
  10. type: Basic Authentication
  11. describedBy:
  12. headers:
  13. Authorization:
  14. description: Used to send the Base64-encoded "username:password" credentials
  15. type: string
  16. example: Authorization NTA5NjUsInN1YiI6IkJhcmNsYXlzX1BheW1lbnRfU2Vydmlj
  17. responses:
  18. 401:
  19. description: |
  20. Unauthorized. Username/password is invalid
  21. types:
  22. Users:
  23. type: object
  24. properties:
  25. id:
  26. required: true
  27. type: integer
  28. username:
  29. required: true
  30. type: string
  31. roles:
  32. required: false
    type: string
  33. /users:
  34. get:
  35. description: List all users with/without filters
  36. queryParameters:
  37. name?: string
  38. roles?: string
  39. response:
  40. 200:
  41. body:
  42. application:json
  43. type: Users[]
  44. example: [
  45. {“id”:1,”username”:”Abdul”}
  46. {“id”:2, “username”:”Waheed”}]
  47. post:
  48. description: create a new user
  49. body:
  50. application/json:
  51. type: Users
  52. example: { "id" : 101, "name" : "Abdul Waheed”, “roles”:”Admin” }
  53. responses:
  54. 201:
  55. body:
  56. application/json:
  57. type: Users
  58. example: { "id" : 101, "name" : "Abdul Waheed”, “roles”:”Admin” }
  59. 500:
  60.    body:
  61.      application/json:
  62.         type: Error
  63.        example: { "message" : "Internal Server Error, "code" : 500 }
  64. /{userId}:
  65. get:
  66. put:
  67. delete:

In my next blog, I ll talk about different RAML tools and the difference between SWAGGER (recently renamed to OAS) Vs RAML and which one to prefer.